We hope you enjoy our #VRABlackHistory Series 202

From the Transformative Justice Coalition and the Voting Rights Alliance



Please note, if you’d like to opt out from only the upcoming daily Black History Month Voting Rights Alliance #VRABlackHistory series, please email carnwine@tjcoalition.org. Unsubscribing at the bottom of this email unsubscribes you to all Transformers, not just from this special February Series.

Black Lives Matter and the Vote:

The Importance of Downballot Voting

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The Transformative Justice Coalition and the Voting Rights Alliance, in honor of Black History Month, are reviving the daily special series devoted to sharing the legacies and stories of the sheroes, heroes, and events in the fight for Black suffrage. This series was created in 2017 and will add 13 NEW articles this year. In addition to these daily newsletters all February long, this series also incorporates daily social media posts; an interactive calendar; and, website blog posts to spread the word broadly.


Feel free to publish on your social media outlets, with credit given to the Transformative Justice Coalition. If you’d like us to share you sharing this series, be sure to send any publications to carnwine@tjcoalition.org so we can repost!


We encourage everyone to share this series to your networks and on social media under the hashtag #VRABlackHistory and to use this series for school projects. You can also tweet us @TJC_DC to share your own facts.


Others can sign up for the daily articles at VotingRightsAlliance.org


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Barbara Arnwine Esq and Daryl Jones Esq Invite YOU to join us Friday February 23rd at 7:00 PM EST for the National Tele-Town Hall Panel Discussion in Commemoration of the 4th Anniversary of the Vicious Racially Motivated Murder of Ahmaud Arbery. Panelist include TJC Leadership and will feature Marcus Arbery (Father) and Family of the late Ahmaud Arbery, Attorney Gerald Griggs, Professor Maureen Edobor, Carl Snowden and Devan Vilfrard. Join us at Facebook Live www.facebook.com/TJC.DC and on https://www.youtube.com/@thetransformativejusticeco6890


For all upcoming Transformative Justice Coalition events, see the latest Transformer by clicking here.

This article was written by Caitlyn Arnwine (formerly Caitlyn Cobb) in 2023. It is a combination of past Original Transformer articles authored by Cailtyn as well as Twitter Storms. All sources linked at the bottom of the article. Sources are also linked in green throughout the article.

Today, February 22, 2024, we are honoring the Movement for Black Lives and how Black Lives Matter highlights the necessity to vote downballot. The purpose of this article is to make the critical connection between these continued police abuses and the power of the ballot to elect officials who exercise power over various jobs that deeply impact policing.


In 2023, the issue of racial misconduct and deadly racialized police killings of Black men and women once again dominated our news cycle following the horrible video of Tyre Nichols.

71 Commands in 13 Minutes: Officers Gave Tyre Nichols Impossible Orders

Five Memphis police officers have been charged in the death of Tyre Nichols, a Black man, after a traffic stop escalated into a brutal beating. A Times analysis found that officers gave dozens of contradictory and unachievable orders to Mr. Nichols. The punishment was severe – and eventually fatal.

Read More

Column: Before Tyre Nichols was a martyr, he was a Sacramento kid who didn’t ‘see color’

Through it all, the family of Tyre Nichols put on their brave faces Wednesday in that church in Memphis, Tenn. They echoed the calls for justice for their 29-year-old son, father and brother, who died after being savagely beaten by police last month.

Read More

Commentary: Will the end result of Tyre Nichols’ death be the same lack of change?

I saw the awful police beatings of Rodney King in 1991 after a traffic chase. The white police officers were acquitted and days of deadly riots followed in Los Angeles. I saw the video killing of George Floyd and the worldwide protests and demonstrations that followed.

Read More

Policies of opposing broken windows policing have become more popular as people have called for the ending of policing in routine traffic enforcement. 


Watch below the 2016 WHUT TV YouTube video featuring Barbara Arnwine discussing broken windows policing.

One of the major problems with US policing is expansive & expensive engagement of police as 1st responders, including in varying social disagreements, problems arising from those suffering from mental illnesses, and domestic disputes which police are not trained & which professionals such as social workers, mental health counselors, and youth developers are better suited.


Also as policing is a major proportion of governmental budgets, it drains resources for reentry support, homelessness services, affordable housing, drug addiction treatment, healthcare, & other essential services. The goal of police abolition is to defund police and to reallocate funding to other essential services. For a good overview of the concept of abolition, please see chart. 


More than protests & tweets: As Rev. Yearwood says, we need to move from a Moment to a deep, long-lasting Movement to see police restructuring take place. After protesting, how do we continue to advocate for police reform & be connected? Where can we get more information? 





  • Donate to organizations fighting for police restructuring:


@TJC_DC tjcoalition.org


@NAACP_LDF https://www.naacpldf.org/


@ArchCityDefense https://www.archcitydefenders.org/


#BlackLivesMatter https://m4bl.org/


Sponsor The Vote https://campaignos.app/go/register2vote/voter-reg-fundraising


Addtionally, See below for: 


How to confront family about #BlackLivesMatter: https://www.instagram.com/p/CA63wsmhJ2P/?igshid=1vx22kmbz034z


Hold yourself accountable when you do something problematic: https://www.instagram.com/p/CA-3MaShOIu/?igshid=1qv3k89oy9s4w


Why refusing to post online is often inherently racist https://www.instagram.com/p/CA0zhFzFjLf/?igshid=16ovxw17sctrj 

⮚    A Brief History on the Origins of American Policing & Why Reform is Difficult

American policing originated with the slave patrols during American slavery which were designed to intercept any “slaves” attempting to escape, and to guarantee that slaves did not interact between plantations.  

In order for these slave patrols to operate, they had to deputize all White people to help in their patrolling. This system was based on the premise that enslaved Africans were “chattel property”. This heritage leads to many of the contemporary problems with White vigilantism.


The heritage of US policing being generated from American Slavery has led to an ingrained culture of police being used to maintain racial control and reinforcing White Supremacy. The police code of the blue wall of science insulates and protects police from accountability. Also, police unions and the Fraternal Order of Police (FOP) endorsements of political candidates are openly leveraged as law and order backdrops by politicians making them beholden to the police unions and FOP.


Police use their union contracts to protect officers from disciplinary actions. Also, police unions and FOP endorsements of political candidates are openly leveraged as law and order backdrops by politicians making them beholden to the police unions and FOP.

⮚    About the Black Lives Matter Movement

“#BlackLivesMatter was founded in 2013 in response to the acquittal of Trayvon Martin’s murderer. Black Lives Matter Global Network Foundation, Inc. is a global organization in the US, UK, and Canada, whose mission is to eradicate white supremacy and build local power to intervene in violence inflicted on Black communities by the state and vigilantes. By combating and countering acts of violence, creating space for Black imagination and innovation, and centering Black joy, we are winning immediate improvements in our lives.”


“In a little over a year [from 2014 – 2015], the movement for Black Lives [had] already begun to transform America…The courage of Ferguson protesters to directly confront this brutal system catalyzed my generation — the largest and most diverse generation in the nation’s history — into action. Across the country, black youth joined in protest to resist police violence and envision a better future, developing demands, developing comprehensive policy agendas, and using digital tools to sear a litany of injustices into the public consciousness…In response, policymakers have proposed police reform legislation in least 31 states, including at least 24 states where legislation has passed. Policy solutions like body cameras, special prosecutors, decriminalizing non-violent offenses, use of force standards and civilian oversight have been enacted at various levels of government. Standing with nearly a thousand of my fellow advocates and activists at the first Movement for Black Lives convening [July 2015], the path of change ahead, though difficult, felt undeniable: The rising generation, now awakened, will continue to push our political leadership to act decisively to make black lives matter — from mayors to senators to the next president of the United States.


“…But as important as policy change is, policy alone will not secure our liberation. Despite the progress that has been made, more black people have been killed by police in the year [2015] since August 9th than were killed in the year preceding it. Eric Garner’s death — caused by a chokehold banned under NYPD policy — reminds us that these policies are only as good as they are enforced.”

⮚    Statistically Speaking: A 2016 look on police brutality

a Transformer original article authored by Caitlyn Cobb


Please note that while the 2015 police shootings and crime database page is still active, the entire “killedbypolice.net” url now redirects to robarguns.com. See updated data at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/585152/people-shot-to-death-by-us-police-by-race/ and https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/investigations/police-shootings-database/


(all image charts/graphs also made by Caitlyn in 2016)

The National Law Enforcement Officer’s Memorial fund reports 123 police officers were killed in 2015 (n. 1). From January 1, 2015 – July 10, 2015, 58 officers had been killed (n. 2), with 18 of those being fire-arms related and 27 of those being traffic-related (with 13 listed as “Other Causes”) (n. 3). From January 1, 2016- July 10, 2016, the same site also says that 56 officers have been killed (n. 2), with 26 of those being fire-arms related and 22 of those being traffic related (the other 8 causes are listed as “Other Causes”) (n. 3). 

That’s a lot of deaths…or is it? Because compared to civilian deaths who have been killed as a result of the police, the numbers don’t seem to add up. In 2015, KilledByPolice.net shows that there were 1,208 civilians killed by police (these may or may not have been justified)  (n. 4). There are links to the news stories of each and every person. Another site that reports on the lives lost due to police is The Counted, created by The Guardian in 2015. This site, just like KilledByPolice.net, works off tips and the FBI database (where “justifiable homicides” are voluntarily reported)and police departments (facilities) (n. 5). There are some differences between the numbers from the two sites, however, upon some research, it was found that The Guardian has cited KilledByPolice.net as being reputable, and both sites are cited frequently in reputable media organizations, like the NY Times. The Counted provides more breakdown of information than is available at KilledByPolice.net. In 2015, The Counted lists 1,146 people were killed by police. They broke it down by population (per million) totals and raw number totals, but we’ll use population (per million) totals here. Of the 1,146 people that were killed by police, 7.27% of them were Black; 3.51% of them were Hispanic/Latino; 3.4% were Native American; 2.93% were White; and, 1.34% were Asian/Pacific Islander. You can click on the link with the corresponding footnote for the breakdown of the raw total number of people by race and ethnicity (n. 6).


In 2016, as of July 10, 2016, KilledByPolice.net has listed 613 people that have been killed by police (n. 7). The Counted has listed 571 people killed by police in 2016, since July 10, 2016. Using the same per million method described above, of those 571 listed: 3.4% have been Native American; 3.28% have been Black; 1.59% have been Hispanic/Latino; 1.42% have been White; and, .56% have been Asian/Pacific Islander. Again, you can click on the link with the corresponding footnote for the breakdown of the raw total number of people by race and ethnicity (n. 6). The Counted, as mentioned before, has many filters, including an “Unarmed” filter. Of the 571 people killed by police this year, 82 of them have been unarmed. (n. 6)


Sadly, because the FBI doesn’t collect data mandatorily from every police department (facility), we’ll never really know how large the number of civilians killed by police truly is. So, let’s look at what we do know. 56 officers have been killed in 2016, as of July 10, 2016. Between 571-613 people have been killed by police in 2016, as of July 10, 2016. If we use the worst case scenario of 613 people killed by police to the 56 police officers killed while on duty, we find that it is about 10 times more likely that you will get killed by a police officer than for an officer to be killed in the line of duty. 

That’s not all; that’s just the tip of the data-iceberg. We found a website, Salon.com, thanks to a tweet (n. 8) sent out by @SeanMcEwlee that contains an article that lays out, among other things, “[h]ow racism strongly affects how white people [and all races] view police conduct” (n. 8). We suggest you look at this article as fundamental reading. Salon.com’s article “Racial resentment and police misconduct: The factors driving personal perception of cop violence” (n. 9) provided some other interesting information in the article other than its core principle: “African-Americans make up 13% of the population but 25% of those killed by police (my calculations from the Guardian data). There are also discrepancies when the victim is unarmed. The Washington Post reports that, ‘black men were seven times more likely than white men to die by police gunfire while unarmed.’” (n. 9) The article also states, “An investigation by the Salt Lake Tribune in Utah finds that more residents in the state were killed by police than gang members or drug dealers. Between Jan. 1 and May 3 of 2015, 1 in 13 of the gun killings in the U.S. were committed by police. However, it does not fall equally across racial groups. According to the Guardian, people of color make up 38 percent of the population, but 47 percent of those killed by police. People of color make up 63 percent of those who are unarmed when killed by police.” (n. 9)


With all these re-occurring killings, surely there is something that citizens and police are doing to counteract it, right? Not exactly. In fact, some people don’t even recognize the problem that we have as on-going: “YouGov polling finds that 49 percent of the public view the Michael Brown shooting as an isolated incident (37 percent see it as part of a broader pattern). Among white Americans, 56 percent view it as an isolated incident (31 percent as a broader problem). Among black Americans only 22 percent view it as an isolated incident, while 68 percent see it as part of a broader problem.” (n. 9) 


And perhaps the scariest part of all is that we know not all of these killings are justified. We know a lot of them aren’t. If we look at the history of American policing, it wasn’t until the mid-to-late 1900’s that police began to be more accountable to the public instead of to corrupt political interests (n. 10). About a generation later, and there’s still little accountability: “Samuel Sinyangwe, a policy analyst at Campaign Zero tweets, ‘Of 4,054 people killed by police since 2013, only 6 cases have led to convictions of officers involved.’” (n. 9)   


Sources for this section:



2 http://www.nleomf.org/facts/officer-fatalities-data/



5 http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/ng-interactive/2015/jun/01/about-the-counted

6 http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/ng-interactive/2015/jun/01/the-counted-police-killings-us-database



https://twitter.com/seanmcelwee/status/752310965610352642?refsrc=email&s=11 9http://www.salon.com/2016/07/10/racial_resentment_and_police_misconduct_the_factors_driving_personal_perception_of_cop_violence/utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=socialflow

10 http://plsonline.eku.edu/insidelook/history-policing-united-states-part-5   


See updated data tracking here:

Police shootings database 2015-2023: Search by race, age, department

Warning: This graphic requires JavaScript. Please enable JavaScript for the best experience. On average, police in the United States shoot and kill more than 1,000 people every year, according to an ongoing analysis by The Washington Post.

Read More

People shot to death by U.S. police, by race 2023 | Statista

Sadly, the trend of fatal police shootings in the United States seems to only be increasing, with a total 1,096 civilians having been shot, 225 of whom were Black, in 2022. As of January 25, 2023, there were 79 fatal police shootings. In 2021 there were 1,048 fatal shootings.

Read More

⮚    Turn Anger Into Action: The Power of the Vote

The Transformative Justice Coalition promotes non-partisan national voter education about the importance of voting, especially for the offices of State’s Attorney, District Attorney, Prosecutor, County Attorney as well as elected officials responsible for the operations of law enforcement. Sadly, often voters only concentrate on the “top of the ticket” picks for President, Vice President, Governor, Lt. Governor, US Senator, while not thinking about the critical position of State Attorney. Recent high profile and disturbing national events involving racial hate crimes or police misconduct have sharpened some awareness of the role of the State Attorney but left many wondering about the immense leadership role embodied in this position.


As we saw in the #VRABlackHistory Article honoring Ahmaud Arbery (1994-2020) and the Brunswick, Georgia community who voted out their shameful District Attorney (2020-2022), you can make change.

Click Here to watch the February 23rd, 2023 “All Voting Is Local” Transformative Justice Coalition National TeleTown Hall with members of the Arbery family.

Today, we honor Ahmaud Arbery (1994-2020) and the Brunswick, Georgia community who voted out their shameful DA (2020-2022) #VRABlackHistory

Today, February 23rd, 2023, on the third anniversary of his killing, we honor Ahmaud Arbery and remember how his tragic passing led to the Brunswick, Georgia community, whom we also honor in this article, coming together to vote out their Judicial Circuit District Attorney (DA), Jackie Johnson, who had been shamefully failing to provide equal justice for years.

Read More
Click Here to Watch the 2020 Transformative Justice Coalition National TeleTown Hall to learn how & why to vote “downballot” (full ballot) from @RepMaxineWaters, @AttorneyCrump, @barbs73, @monie1388, and others

Many of us have been angered or saddened by the slayings of Black and Brown men and women, but do not know that we can vote for the district attorneys, sheriffs, & judges who all decide whether or not the perpetrators will be held accountable.


At the forefront of planning protests should be the inclusion of voter registration systems. @HeadCountOrg can offer advice, assistance & co-sponsorship. You can also use https://mapthe.vote/https://campaignos.app/go/register2vote/voter-reg-fundraising. At the beginning of a protest, have everyone text VOTE to 50409 for a @resistbot voting checklist. Text INVITE to invite a friend. You can also have the protesters register to vote or check their voter reg with @votedotorg Vote.org.


Whether you’re upset about the deaths of #AhmaudArbery & #BreonnaTaylor or concerned about Small business development, unemployment benefits, or hospitals leaving your area, it’s important to vote downballot. “Top of the ticket” picks for Pres, VP, Gov, Lt. Gov, & US Senator are not the only races that matter. It’s important to vote “downballot” for the elected offices that most don’t think about. The concept of Black Lives Matter is more than just those killed by police and fighting White Supremacy, it also extends to every facet of improving lives for Black people.


Voting determines how much money you make. The Governor you vote for appoints The Sec of Labor who safegaurds workers, controls: the min wage, how much unemployment benefits are, occupational licensing, adult learning, & the racing commission. Public benefits are driven by people in office. Vote and be educated about your county commissioner, and public health and state officials & legislature.


You won’t agree with a candidate 100% of the time, just like you don’t agree with your SO or family 100% of the time. When choosing who to vote for, choose someone who most closely aligns with your politics and beliefs. When choosing a leader, look to the future as well as the present. It’s not just about if you’d “like them”; but also how will this candidate manage a crisis? Due to Climate Change, there are crises, pandemics, & natural disasters happening more often.


COVID-19 has made it clear that policies are needed to address equity in online education for children. Parents can vote to help bring equal access to good internet and enriching learning programs for all school districts.


Be prepared for any situation & vote now for your future. Healthcare, K-12 & higher education, and social security benefits are all subject to the decision maker in office. So is military service, Medicare, trade policies, & small business development. Shockingly, during the COVID-19 crisis, environmental regulations have been pulled back. Your vote decides who’s in office & also the agency leaders the person elected picks, like who heads the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), & which agencies receive funding.


You can use your vote to fight racial discrimination in municipal services & fight for: clean water systems; equal access to gas/other utilities; clean energy; broadband internet access; community development funds; equal policing; jobs; &, food security. Hospital closures have been pervasive in rural communities leaving residents without adequate healthcare. According to Forbes, 1 in 4 rural hospitals are at risk of closure. Your local & state governments & policy makers can prevent these closures.


 If you are a Black farmer, your vote can bring about equal municipal services. Learn more about why it’s important:


@RevJJackson’s article on Pembroke: https://www.washingtoninformer.com/jesse-jackson-new-hope-for-pembroke-township/


@fhi_duke’s video on Lowndes County, Alabama: https://www.youtube.com/watch?list=PLwpIhcP1Fqo7GS5kKN8QPB2Sk87WuRMxt&time_continue=87&v=mSMqqHYvF04&feature=emb_logo


Don’t be silent about voting if you have been angered or saddened by police brutality: we can vote for the district attorneys, sheriffs, & judges who all decide whether or not the perpetrators will be held accountable.

A good percentage of non-voters report not voting because they don’t know who candidates are & don’t know how to vote downballot. How do you vote downballot & obtain unbiased, accurate information about candidates or issues of concern on the ballot?


VoteSmart’s mission is to provide free, factual, unbiased information on candidates & elected officials. Use their Political Galaxy tool to select any issue and instantly arrive at every fact related to that person on that issue. https://votesmart.org/galaxy/?utm_source=header&utm_medium=galaxy%20button&utm_campaign=galaxy#/ (This now redirects to their equally helpful “Side by Side” tool where you enter the name of the official running for office or in office to learn more about them).


To find information on what issues and candidates will be on your ballot ahead of time, use @ballotpedia’s sample ballot lookup tool. https://ballotpedia.org/Sample_Ballot_Lookup


You can also use @VOTE411’s Sample Ballot Lookup & filter by language https://www.vote411.org/ballot?address


Call your friends, family, and neighbors and look up your sample ballot together with @ballotpedia, @vote411, or @votesmart and talk through the options. You don’t have to agree, but it’s a great way for everyone to gain confidence when voting. 


If you do not have internet access, call your State Board of Elections rep & ask for assistance. To find your state’s number, call @EACgov toll-free at 866-747-1471, press 3, & say you’re looking for your State Board of Elections number.


If you’re helping someone with their sample ballot who doesn’t have internet access, you can find their State Board of Elections toll-free number at https://www.usa.gov/election-office. They must call themselves & you should not fill out any information on their behalf.


⮚    Be Prepared to vote downballot (full ballot)

Taken from The Transformer original article in 2016 authored by Caitlyn Cobb

Being prepared to vote is as important as being registered to vote. Some states require a particular photo ID to vote; some states require no photo ID; some states may require a photo ID, but if you can’t afford or don’t have one, you simply have to sign something saying you are who you are; some states use voting machines; and, some states use paper ballots.


~ If your state requires a photo ID ~


If your state requires a photo ID, or a particular photo ID, then make sure you have that proper ID. If you don’t have the proper ID or can’t afford it, be sure to know your state’s laws, and whether you can simply sign a piece of paper verifying who you are. There may also be resources in your state that will drive you to places where you can obtain your photo ID or pay for your photo ID. If you need those resources: please email us back from this Transformer and let us know what state you’re in so we can help; or, call 1-866-OUR-VOTE; or, visit VoteRiders.com Even if you have the proper ID, it’s not only good to verify your registration, but to bring a piece of mail with your name and address, especially if you’ve moved or changed your last name.



~ If your state does not require a photo ID ~


If your state requires no photo ID, that’s great!. However, we advise voters print our your state-specific voting law information because poll workers may also be confused about your state’s laws, especially if they’ve changed recently, and may demand the wrong information. 



~ Sample Ballots ~


A good way to know there is no problems with your state’s voter registration is that you have verified your registration or that you have already received your sample ballot in the mail. Sample ballots are replica’s of the actual ballots you’ll see and are used to introduce voters to local candidates and other initiatives, such as voting for or against a particular constitutional amendment, education funding, or a particular act or bill, such as term limits for certain elected officials. Sample ballots are different depending on you county or city. While most have a few questions that are the same state-wide, they usually differ when it comes to the particular things you’re voting for or against. For instance, there could be a state-wide initiative that would make marijuana legal, and a local initiative for $6,000,000 to be borrowed by the city or county to institute affordable housing measures.


Sample ballots not only introduce you to ballot initiatives, but also to local candidates who you may not have heard of, especially if your state is not completive in the local elections. While all sample ballots contain the Presidential candidates, the local ones may actually be more important to your needs, such as your governor, congresspeople, senators, school board, state’s attorney, and any other elected officials that are up for re-election in your state.


This may sound confusing, but sample ballots are actually sent to you to make voting easier. You can bring the sample ballots with you into the voting booths. Each sample ballot can be filled in, so you can fill it in ahead of time, and use it as a guide to fill in your actual ballot. This makes the process less stressful, familiarizes you with what your ballot will look like, and makes the process faster. And, while it’s true that sample ballots are different for each county or city, every state send sample ballots- so there’s no confusing sample ballot laws to look up. Sample ballots also tell you your polling places on the back.


And while sample ballots are a great way to know there is nothing wrong with your registration, if you don’t receive your sample ballot, it doesn’t necessarily mean there is anything wrong with your registration; it could just be that you moved recently. If you don’t receive your sample ballot, simply verify your registration again. If your registration is verified or if you voted in the primaries, then it could just be a circumstantial error that you didn’t receive your sample ballot. Each state has a state-operated website that allows you to print your particular country-or-city-specific official sample ballot. CLICK HERE to be directed to Ballotpedia’s sample ballot tool.

⮚    Conclusion

Now that you’re armed with information- VOTE!

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1.    https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/investigations/police-shootings-database/

2.    https://www.statista.com/statistics/585152/people-shot-to-death-by-us-police-by-race/

3.    https://conta.cc/2tRTd43

4.    https://nextcity.org/urbanist-news/how-the-movement-for-black-lives-will-transform-america-cities

5.    https://nextcity.org/urbanist-news/how-the-movement-for-black-lives-will-transform-america-cities

6.    https://blacklivesmatter.com/about/

7.    https://robarguns.com/

8.    https://conta.cc/2AoVDKG

9.    https://www.obama.org/anguish-and-action/

10. https://docs.google.com/document/d/1CjZMORRVuv-I-qo4B0YfmOTqIOa3GUS207t5iuLZmyA/edit

11. https://www.vote411.org/ballot?address

12. https://ballotpedia.org/Sample_Ballot_Lookup

13. http://sbs.votesmart.org/

14. https://votesmart.org/galaxy/?utm_source=header&utm_medium=galaxy%20button&utm_campaign=galaxy#/

15. https://conta.cc/3xWT79d

16. https://justfacts.votesmart.org/#/

17. https://www.blog.votesmart.org/post/side-by-side-is-here

18. https://www.facebook.com/watch/live/?ref=watch_permalink&v=917567022896293

19. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1NkF_KlhNk0vuJx9eYlwNDY91nBW3dqt_/view

20. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1jCVFMOD8TKw_3IQadcafOwfGZZNdFYbC/view

21. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AOuQnL6C2OHu55anxePerRCRuZi0tB6c/view

22. https://robarguns.com/kbp2015.html

23. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DC0seL5umj4

24. https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2023-02-02/tyre-nichols-memphis-funeral-sacramento-mourns-native-son

25. https://roanoke.com/opinion/commentary/commentary-will-the-end-result-of-tyree-nichols-death-be-the-same-lack-of-change/article_231da000-a34b-11ed-b668-bbb28972d4f6.html

26. https://drive.google.com/file/d/19t2XBUryiVM0b3-_S9K6xoS9K2lkiNv-/view

27. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1s6DTDkNJdIsV0MPcMrwNzGv_nwXEQcjA/view

28. https://conta.cc/2AoVDKG

29 https://conta.cc/3XX6Pn4

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